1 being divided or separated; "split between love and hate"
2 having been divided; having the unity destroyed; "Congress...gave the impression of...a confusing sum of disconnected local forces"-Samuel Lubell; "a league of disunited nations"- E.B.White; "a fragmented coalition"; "a split group" [syn: disconnected, disunited, fragmented]
3 broken or burst apart longitudinally; "after the thunderstorm we found a tree with a split trunk"; "they tore big juicy chunks from the heart of the split watermelon"
4 having a long rip or tear; "a split lip" [syn: cut]
5 (especially of wood) cut or ripped longitudinally with the grain; "we bought split logs for the fireplace"
1 extending the legs at right angles to the trunks (one in front and the other in back)
2 a bottle containing half the usual amount
3 a promised or claimed share of loot or money; "he demanded his split before they disbanded"
4 a lengthwise crack in wood; "he inserted the wedge into a split in the log"
5 an opening made forcibly as by pulling apart; "there was a rip in his pants"; "she had snags in her stockings" [syn: rip, rent, snag, tear]
6 an old Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea
7 a dessert of sliced fruit and ice cream covered with whipped cream and cherries and nuts
8 (tenpin bowling) a divided formation of pins left standing after the first bowl; "he was winning until he got a split in the tenth frame"
9 an increase in the number of outstanding shares of a corporation without changing the shareholders' equity; "they announced a two-for-one split of the common stock" [syn: stock split, split up]
10 the act of rending or ripping or splitting something; "he gave the envelope a vigorous rip" [syn: rent, rip]
11 division of a group into opposing factions; "another schism like that and they will wind up in bankruptcy" [syn: schism]
1 separate into parts or portions; "divide the cake into three equal parts"; "The British carved up the Ottoman Empire after World War I" [syn: divide, split up, separate, dissever, carve up] [ant: unite]
3 discontinue an association or relation; go different ways; "The business partners broke over a tax question"; "The couple separated after 25 years of marriage"; "My friend and I split up" [syn: separate, part, split up, break, break up]
- , /splɪt/, /splIt/
- (usually in the phrase to do the splits) The acrobatic feat of spreading the legs flat on the floor 180 degrees apart, either sideways to the body or with one leg in front and one behind.
- In the context of "baseball|slang": A split-finger
- He’s got a nasty split.
- In the context of "bowling": : A result of a first throw that leaves two or more pins standing with one or more pins between them knocked down.
- A dessert or confection resembling a banana split.
- A unit of measure used for champagne or other spirits (18.75 cl or 1/20th gallon or one quarter of a standard sized bottle, .750 liters).
- A bottle of wine containing 0.375 liters of fluid, 1/2 the volume of a standard bottle; a demi.
see specific entry
- Japanese: スプリット
a dessert or confection
a unit of measure used for champagne or other spirits
a bottle of wine containing 0.375 liters of fluid
- Of something solid, to divide fully or partly along a more or
less straight line.
- He has split his lip.
- To share; to divide.
- We split the money among three people
- To leave.
- Let's split this scene and see if we can find a real party.
- to separate or
- Did you hear Dick and Jane split? They'll probably get a divorce.
- split up (verb)
divide along a more or less straight line
- Catalan: repartir
- Dutch: verdelen
- Finnish: jakaa
- French: diviser, répartir
- German: verteilen, aufteilen
- Hebrew: ,
- Italian: spartire
- Japanese: qualifier share out 分ける; qualifier divide 分離する, 分断する; qualifier cut off 切断する, 切り離す
- Polish: dzielić
- Portuguese: dividir, repartir
- Russian: делить (razd'elít’) , разделить (razd'elít’) , поделить (pod'elít’)
- Spanish: repartir, dividir
Split (; lang-la Spalatum; lang-it Spalato) is the largest and most important city in Dalmatia, the administrative center of Croatia's Split-Dalmatia County, and the country's second-largest city. It is a Mediterranean city, situated on a small peninsula on the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea.Split is also one of the oldest cities in the area, dating more that 1700 years, although some new archeological researchs show the possibility of the city being even older.
Although the beginnings of Split are usually linked to the building of Diocletian's Palace, the city was founded as a Greek colony of Aspálathos much earlier. The Greek settlement lived off trade with the surrounding Illyrian tribes, mostly the Delmatae, who inhabited the (much larger) nearby city of Salona. In time, the Roman Republic became the dominant power in the region, and conquered the Illyrians in the Illyrian Wars of 229 BC and 219 BC. Upon establishing permanent control, the Romans founded the province of Dalmatia with Salona as the capital. The name of the nearby town thus changed from "Aspálathos" to "Spalatum".
After almost dying from a sickness, the Roman Emperor Diocletian (ruled AD 284 to 305), great reformer of the late Roman Empire, decided to retire from politics in AD 305. The Emperor ordered work to begin on a retirement palace near his hometown, and since he was from the town of Dioclea near Salona, he chose the nearby seaside town of Spalatum for the location. Work on the palace began in AD 293 in readiness for his retirement from politics. The palace was built as a massive structure, much like a Roman military fortress. It faces the sea on its south side, with its walls 170 to 200 meters (570 to 700 feet) long, and 15 to 20 meters (50 to 70 feet) high, enclosing an area of 38,000m² (9½ acres). The palace water supply was substantial, fed by an aqueduct from Jadro Spring. This opulent palace and its surroundings were at times inhabited by a population as large as 8,000 to 10,000 people, who required parks and recreation space; therefore, Diocletian established such outdoor areas at Marjan hill. He later retired exactly according to schedule, becoming the first Roman emperor to voluntarily remove himself from office.
Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, Spalatum fell under the rule of the Byzantine Emperors. It grew very slowly as a satellite town of the much larger Salona. However, around AD 639 Salona fell to the invasion of Avars and Slavs, and was razed to the ground, with the majority of the displaced citizens fleeing to the nearby Adriatic islands. Following the return of Byzantine rule to the area, the Romanic citizens returned to the mainland under the leadership of the nobleman known as Severus the Great. They chose to inhabit Diocletian's Palace in Spalatum, because of its strong (more "medieval") fortifications. The palace was long deserted by this time, and the interior was converted into a city by the Salona refugees, making Spalatum much larger as the successor to the capital city of the province. Today the palace constitutes the inner core of the city, still inhabited, full of shops, markets, squares, with an ancient cathedral (formerly Diocletian's mausoleum) inserted in the corridors and floors of the former palace. As a part of the Byzantine Empire, the city had varying but significant political autonomy.
The Medieval period in Split's Dalmatia province is marked by the waning power of the Byzantine Empire, and by the struggle of the neighboring powers, namely the Venetian Republic, the Kingdom of Croatia, and (later) the Kingdom of Hungary, to fill the power vacuum.
The arrival of the South Slavs (mostly Croats) in the 7th century AD profoundly influenced the area. The hinterland and the islands were predominantly populated by the Croats, who began influencing the city itself. The early Medieval Croatian state (later the Kingdom of Croatia) founded neighboring littoral cities (such as Šibenik), and encompassed the vast majority of the hinterland. In the following centuries Split developed an increasingly Croatian character, which can be seen in the architecture (particularly of churches) in the city and its surroundings. The city's Romanic population increasingly mingled with the surrounding populace.
To the north, the Venetian Republic began to influence the Dalmatian region from the 10th century, using its growing economic influence to gain control over the islands and the coastal cities. It gained control over the city during several periods, due mostly to the temporary weakness of the Croatian or Hungarian state.
With the decline of the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of Croatia held de-facto suzerainty over the city, granting it significant autonomy due to the state's feudal character. In the year 1102, Croatia was forced into a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary (see Croatian pacta conventa) by its King, Coloman. The city however maintained its significant degree of independence, and in 1312, it issued statues as well as currency of its own.
Venetian and Austrian rule
During the 20-year Hungarian civil war between King Sigismund and the Neapolitan house of Anjou, the losing contender, Ladislaus of Naples, sold his "rights" on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for a mere 100,000 ducats. The much more centralized Republic took over the city by the year 1420, it was to remain under Venetian rule for 377 years (1420 - 1797). The population was by that time largely Croatian, but besides Slavic, the common language was also Italian (a mixture of Tuscan and Venetian dialects). The autonomy of the city was reduced: the highest authority was a prince-captain, always of Venetian birth.
Despite this, Split eventually developed into a significant port-city, with important trade routes to the Ottoman-held interior through the nearby Klis pass. Culture flourished as well, Split being the hometown of Marko Marulić, a classic Croatian author. Marko Marulić's most acclaimed work, Judita (1501), was written in Split, and was published there in 1521. It is widely held to be the first modern work of Croatian literature. Still, it should be noted the advances and achievements were reserved mostly for the aristocracy: the illiteracy rate was extremely high, mostly because Venetian rule showed little interest in educational and medical facilities. Split was ruled by the Venetian Republic up to its downfall in 1797. After a brief period of Napoleonic rule (1806–1813), the city was allocated to the Empire of Austria by the Congress of Vienna. Large investments were undertaken in the city during that period, new streets were built and parts of the ancient fortifications were removed.
During the period of the Austrian Empire Split's region, the Kingdom of Dalmatia, was a separate administrative unit. After the revolutions of 1848 as a result of the romantic nationalism, two factions appeared. One was the pro-Croatian Unionist faction (later called the "Puntari" faction), led by the People's Party and, to a lesser extent, the Party of Rights, both of which advocated the union of Dalmatia with Croatia-Slavonia which was under Hungarian administration. This faction was strongest in Split, and used it as its headquarters. The other faction was the pro-Italian Autonomist faction (also known as the "Irredentist" faction), whose political goals of which varied from autonomy within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, to a political union with Italy. The political alliances in Split shifted over time. At the beginning, the Unionists and Autonomists were allied together, against centralism of Vienna. After a while, when the national question came to prominence, they separated. Under Austria, however, Split can generally be said to have stagnated. The great upheavals in Europe in 1848 gained no ground in Split, and the city did not rebel.
20th century after WWI
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
After the end of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the province of Dalmatia, along with Split, became a part of The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which in 1929 changed its name to Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Since both Rijeka and Zadar, the two other large cities on the eastern Adriatic coast, were annexed by Italy, Split became the most important port in Yugoslavia. In the new country, Split became the seat of new administrative unit, Littoral Banovina. The Lika railway, connecting Split to the rest of the country, was completed in 1925. After the Cvetković-Maček agreement, Split became the part of new administrative unit (merging of Sava and Littoral Banovina plus some Croat populated areas), Banovina of Croatia in Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
World War IIIn April 1941, following the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Nazi Germany, Split was occupied by Italy and formally annexed one month later. Italian rule met heavy opposition from the Croat majority and almost a third of the total population joined Josip Broz Tito's Partisans. The local football clubs refused to compete in the Italian championship; HNK Hajduk and RNK Split suspended its activities and later both joined the Partisans along with their entire staff. Soon after Hajduk became the official football club of the Partisan movement.
In September 1943, following the capitulation of Italy, the city was liberated by Tito's brigades with thousands of people volunteering to join the Partisans, only to be placed (by the Wehrmacht) under the occupation of the Nazi puppet NDH (the so called "Independent State of Croatia") just a few weeks later. During the occupation, some of the port facilities as well as parts of the old city were damaged by NDH and German bombing. In a tragic turn of events, besides being bombed by axis forces, the heavily pro-Partisan city was also bombed by the Allies, causing hundreds of deaths. Partisans finally liberated the city on October 26, 1944. On February 12, 1945 the Kriegsmarine conducted a daring raid on the Split harbor, damaging the British cruiser Delhi. Until the end of war Split was the provisional capital of Croatia.
SFR YugoslaviaAfter World War II, Split became a part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, itself a constituent sovereign republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. During the period the city experienced its largest economical and demographic boom. Dozens of new factories and other companies were founded with the cities population increasing three times during the period. The city became the economic center of an area far exceeding the borders of Croatia and was flooded by waves of rural migrants from the undeveloped hinterland who found employment in the newly built factories, a part of large-scale industrialization and investment by the Yugoslav Federal government. The shipbuilding industry was particularly successful, with Yugoslavia becoming one of the world's top nations in the field. Many recreational facilities were also constructed with federal funding, especially for the 1979 Mediterranean Games, such as the Poljud Stadium, an architectural marvel. The city also became the largest passenger and military port in Yugoslavia and the center of the Yugoslav People's Army's (Croato-Serbian: Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija, JNA) Coastal Military District (equivalent of a field army) along with the headquarters of the Yugoslav War Navy (Croato-Serbian: Jugoslavenska Ratna Mornarica, JRM).
In the period between 1945 and 1990, the city was totally transformed and expanded, taking up the whole of the peninsula. In the same period (considered its golden age) it achieved an as yet unsurpassed GDP and employment level, far above the present day's, and became one of the largest cities in the whole of Yugoslavia.
Republic of Croatia
When Croatia declared its independence in 1991, Split had a large garrison of JNA troops (drafted from all over Yugoslavia), as well as facilities and the headquarters of the Yugoslav War Navy (JRM). This led to a months-long tense stand-off between the JNA and Croatian National Guard and police forces, occasionally flaring up with various incidents.
The most tragic such incident occurred in November 15 1991, when the JRM light frigate Split fired a small number of shells at the city. The damage was insignificant, but there were a few casualties. In this incident, only the old town was shelled, as it was exclusively Croat-populated. This was the only time in history that a city was bombarded by a military vessel bearing its name. On the same day of the attack, Croat forces damaged the light frigate, forcing it to be abandoned. Sailors of the JRM who had refused to attack Croat civilians, most of them Croats themselves, were left in the vessel's brig. The JNA and JRM evacuated all of its facilities in Split during January 1992. The economic recession soon began.
The mayor of Split is Ivan Kuret of the Croatian Democratic Union while the City Council currently has the following makeup:
EconomySplit's economy has slowly begun to emerge from the recession caused by the transfer to a market economy, and the privatization. During this shadowy privatization process and the breakdown of law and order caused by the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia, a large number of the city's prosperous companies were utterly ruined by criminal activity and corruption as people enjoying the new government's support scrambled to make as much money as possible by dismantling the industry and selling its property off piecemeal. However, in the Yugoslav era the city had been a highly significant economic center with a modern and diverse industrial and economic base including shipbuilding, food, chemical, plastics, textile, paper industry, etc. Today most of the factories are out of business (or are far below pre-war production and employment capacity) and the city has been trying to concentrate on commerce and services, consequently leaving an alarmingly large number of factory workers unemployed. It has nevertheless managed to relatively maintain its position as an important transportation, commercial, and administrative center of Dalmatia, ensuring stable, though lethargic economic growth.
The prospects for the future perhaps look somewhat brighter. The new A1 motorway, integrating Split with the rest of the Croatian freeway network, has helped stimulate economic production and investment, with new businesses being built in the city center and its wildly sprawling suburbs. The entire route was opened in July 2005. Today, the city's economy relies mostly on trade and tourism with some old industries undergoing partial revival, such as food (fishing, olive, wine production), paper, concrete and chemicals.
A government report in late October 2006 released somewhat positive information regarding Split's economy. In 2005 and 2006, 4,000 new jobs were created in Split's rather large province. Foreign investment in the first six months of 2006 grew by 76%, and for the first time export levels were greater than import levels. Also, Split's economy in the first half of 2006 grew at a 6% rate. Additionally, 2006 brought to Split many shipbuilding jobs, which signify the beginning of revitalization for the once-massive shipbuilding industry in Split.
Geography and climate
Split is situated on a peninsula between the eastern part of the Gulf of Kaštela and the Split Channel. The Marjan hill (178m), rises in the western part of the peninsula. The ridges Kozjak (779m) and his brother Mosor (1339m) protect the city from the north and northeast, and separate it from the hinterland.
Split has a Mediterranean climate: hot, dry summers (maximum air temperature in July reaches 42 °C) and warm, wet winters (average annual rainfall is 900mm). Split is one of the sunniest places in Europe.
Vegetation is of the evergreen Mediterranean type, and subtropical flora (palm-trees, agaves, cacti) grow in the city and its surroundings. The Marjan hill is covered with a large cultivated forest.
According to the 2001 census, the city of Split had 188,694 citizens, in 2007 this rose to 221,456. There are approximately 410,000 people in the Split metropolitan area. Split has one of the largest demographic growths in Croatia. The entire Split-Dalmatia county has around 470,000 residents, with Croats making up 95.15% of the population.http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/Census2001/Popis/E01_02_02/E01_02_02_zup17.html 88.37% of the residents of the city are Roman Catholics.http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/Census2001/Popis/E01_02_04/E01_02_04_zup17.html
Split is an important transport center for Dalmatia and the wider region. In addition to the Zagreb-Split freeway (A1), all the road traffic along the Adriatic coast on the route Zadar–Dubrovnik flows through the city. The city also has an impressive series of expressways and avenues, enabling efficient, fast transit by car around the city and its suburbs. City public transport is conducted by bus, the city being inadequate for trams due to its hilly structure. The local public transport company Promet Split has recently renovated its fleet with the latest models.
The airport in Kaštela is the second largest in Croatia in terms of passenger numbers (1,190,551 in 2007), with year-round services to Zagreb, London, Frankfurt and the Cologne Bonn Airport in Germany, as well as heavy tourist traffic in the summer. The expansion of the terminal is scheduled to commence in 2008.
The Split passenger seaport is the third busiest port in the Mediterranean, with daily coastal routes to Rijeka, Dubrovnik and Ancona in Italy. During the summer season Split is connected with other Italian cities as well, such as Pescara. Most of the central Dalmatian islands are only reachable via the Split harbour (with Jadrolinija and Split Tours ferries). This includes the islands of Brač, Hvar and Šolta, as well as the more distant Vis, Korčula and Lastovo .
Split is the southernmost integrated point of the Croatian Railway network. Within Split's city centre, railway traffic passes two tunnels before reaching the Central Station. The line to Split is unremarkable; a journey from Split to Zagreb or Rijeka takes around 5 hours, as the line is unelectrified and consists of only one track. Currently, there are no definite plans to upgrade the line, but with the start of work on the new Zagreb-Rijeka railway line in October 2007, the line to Split may very well see renovation in the near future.
The Split Suburban Railway network opened in early December 2006. It currently has one line, running from the Split city harbour to Kaštel Stari. The line is expected to get a second track and be fully electrified by 2008. New, low-floor trains are expected to be implemented as well. This line will also be lengthened, to encompass the aforementioned Split International Airport, and continue on to the towns of Trogir and Seget Donji. Split also plans to construct a mini-metro that is to be operational by 2009.
Since 1979, the historic center of Split has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.
Split is also known as one of the centers of Croatian culture. Its literary tradition can be traced to medieval times, and includes names like Marko Marulić, while in more modern times Split excelled by authors famous for their sense of humor. Among them the most notable is Miljenko Smoje, famous for his TV series Malo Misto and Velo Misto, with the latter dealing with the development of Split into a modern city. Despite colorful settings and characters, as well as a cinema tradition that could be traced to early 20th century works of Josip Karaman, there were relatively few films shot in or around Split. However, the city was home to several famous actors, most notably Boris Dvornik.
Also well known is Ivo Tijardović, and his famous operetta "Little Floramye" (Mala Floramye). Both Smoje and Tijardović are famous artists thought to represent the old Split traditions that are slowly dying out due to the city being overwhelmed by large numbers of rural migrants from the undeveloped hinterland. The old Split families still desperately cling to the littoral Dalmatian way of life and values, often publicly stating their disgust at the ruralization of the ancient city.
Split also houses two important archaeological museums - one dedicated to antiquity, another to the early medieval period. The most recognisable aspect of Split culture is popular music. Notable composers include Ivo Tijardović, Zdenko Runjić - some of the most influential musicians in former Yugoslavia. There is great cultural activity during summers, when the prestigious Split Music Festival is held, followed by Split Summer (Splitsko ljeto) theater festival. The largest pop-concerts in Split since Croatian independence have been held by Mišo Kovač, Thompson, and a night of traditional klapa singers from across Dalmatia, all at Poljud Stadium.
Sportsmen are traditionally held in high regard in Split, and the city is famous for producing many champions. The most popular sports in Split are football (soccer), tennis, basketball, swimming, rowing, sailing, waterpolo, athletics, and handball.
The main football (soccer) club is the HNK Hajduk, arguably the most popular club in Croatia, while the RNK Split is the city's second club. The largest football stadium is the Poljud Stadium (HNK Hajduk's ground), with 35,000 capacity (55,000 prior to the renovation to an all-seater). Basketball is also popular, and the city basketball club, KK Split (Jugoplastika), holds the absolute record of winning the Euroleague three consecutive times (1989-1991), with notable players like Toni Kukoč and Dino Rađa both of whom are Split natives.
Split's most famous tennis stars are the retired Wimbledon champion Goran Ivanišević and Mario Ančić ("Super Mario"). Members of the local rowing club HVK Gusar won numerous Olympic and World Championship medals. Swimming also has a long tradition in Split, with Duje Draganja and Vanja Rogulj as the most famous swimmers from the city. As a member of the ASK Split athletics club, the champion Blanka Vlašić also originates from the city. The biggest sports events to be held in Split were the 1979 Mediterranean Games, and the 1990 European Athletics Championships.
Split will be one of the host cities of the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship. The city will have a new arena built for this event. The cost of the arena will be evenly divided between the city and the government.
Picigin is a traditional local sport (originating in 1908), played on several of the city beaches (Bačvice). It is played in shallow water with a small ball. There is a tradition of playing picigin in Split on New Year's Day, regardless of the weather conditions, in spite of the sea temperature rarely exceeding 10 °C.
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split in Bosnian: Split
split in Bulgarian: Сплит
split in Catalan: Split
split in Czech: Split
split in Danish: Split
split in German: Split
split in Lower Sorbian: Split
split in Estonian: Split
split in Modern Greek (1453-): Σπλιτ
split in Spanish: Split
split in Esperanto: Split
split in French: Split
split in Western Frisian: Split
split in Upper Sorbian: Split
split in Croatian: Split
split in Indonesian: Split
split in Italian: Spalato
split in Hebrew: ספליט
split in Latin: Spalatum
split in Latvian: Splita
split in Luxembourgish: Split
split in Lithuanian: Splitas
split in Hungarian: Split
split in Dutch: Split
split in Japanese: スプリト
split in Norwegian: Split
split in Norwegian Nynorsk: Split
split in Polish: Split (miasto)
split in Portuguese: Split
split in Romanian: Split
split in Russian: Сплит (город)
split in Slovak: Split
split in Slovenian: Split
split in Serbian: Сплит
split in Serbo-Croatian: Split
split in Finnish: Split
split in Swedish: Split
split in Turkish: Split
split in Venetian: Spàłato
split in Volapük: Split
split in Chinese: 斯普利特
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